Sunday, 23 October 2016

Lactobacillus and Pediococcus as Probiotics

Probiotics are live bacteria and yeasts that are good for our health, especially the digestive system. We usually think of bacteria as something that causes diseases. But the body is full of bacteria, both good and bad. Probiotics are often called "good" or "helpful" bacteria because they help keep your gut healthy.
Probiotics are naturally found in the body. You can also find them in some foods and supplements.
The Lactobacillus species
Lactobacillus refers to a group of lactic acid producing, friendly bacteria that make up many of the 400 normal probiotic species in the human body. Lactobacilli provide many benefits, including the following:

  • Inducing growth factors and increasing the bioavailability of minerals.

  • Stabilizing the mucosal barrier and decreasing intestinal permeability.

  • Reducing undesirable bacteria by producing lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide.

  • Immunomodulating effects such as promoting healthy immune function.

  • Promoting healthy levels of Candida albicans.
Lactobacillus is used for treating and preventing diarrhea, including infectious types such as rotaviral diarrhea in children and traveler's diarrhea. It is also used to prevent and treat diarrhea associated with using antibiotics.

Some people use lactobacillus for general digestion problems; irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); colic in babies; Crohn's disease; inflammation of the colon; and a serious gut problem called necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in babies born prematurely. Lactobacillus is also used for infection with Helicobacter pylori, the type of bacteria that causes ulcers, and also for other types of infections including urinary tract infections (UTIs), vaginal yeast infections, to prevent the common cold in adults, and to prevent respiratory infections in children attending daycare centers. It is also being tested to prevent serious infections in people on ventilators.

Lactobacillus is used for skin disorders such as fever blisters, canker sores, eczema (allergic dermatitis); and acne.

It is also used for high cholesterol, lactose intolerance, Lyme disease, hives, and to boost the immune system.

Women sometimes use lactobacillus suppositories to treat vaginal infections and urinary tract infections (UTIs).
Pediococcus:
The members of the genus Pediococcus have long history of application in the food and food processing industry. They have found their utility either as a direct effector of the fermentation that resulted in the desired fermented food product or as an added microbe in certain cases to produce a desired additional effect like specific aroma in the some wines. They produce diacetyl compounds which results in the formation of butterscotch aroma. They are used in the manufacture of sauerkraut from cabbage through their ability to ferment the sugar in cabbage to lactic acid. In addition, they are applied as the beneficial microflora in the preparation of cheese and yoghurt. With a host of beneficial effects under their kitty the strains from this genus can certainly boast of becoming very useful part of the existing probiotic bacterial strains. The two major species identified so far in this genus are:

Pediococcus acidilactici

Although Pediococcus acidilactici is not a natural component of the microintestinal flora, it is safe (belongs to the GRAS list) and has been well studied in the feed field where several probiotic effects have been reported. P. acidilactici was isolated from a vegetable source. It reduces food storage spoilage by inhibiting pathogens and putrefactive bacteria. This strain is very resistant to destruction by stomach acids. Animal research has shown that P. acidilactici is able to balance the intestinal microflora and reduce the risk of suboptimal health. Moreover, current results indicate that P. acidilactici is able to promote a healthy inflammatory response in the intestines, as well as support a healthy immune response. P. acidilactici produces several different antimicrobial compounds that lessen the number of pathogenic bacteria. It actively competes against Listeria.
Pediococcus Pentosaceus
The Pediococcus pentosaceus strains are found in abundance in the human breast milk. They could efficiently resist conditions of low pH, high bile salt concentration as well as enzymes like pepsin. They have shown good passage capabilities through the stomach and colonize the gut within the hosts. The bacteriocins produced by them are able to inhibit the growth of the pathogens like Listeria monocytogenes. Therefore, they can be tried out as effective component of probiotic products.
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